Hannah and Je together

Thursday, 27 October 2016

Who do you say I am?

A month of ago or so, I was reading the Gospel of Matthew in Greek Bible.  It was Matthew 16:13-20 that Jesus was asking his disciples what the people say about him and also what the disciples say about him.  And one thing made me very curious.

Jesus asked the question twice first in v.13, and then v.15.  In Common English Bible, these questions are:

  • Who do people say the human one is?
  • And what about you?  Who do you say that I am?

In CEB and all other English translations as well use the present tense of BE – IS and AM.  But in Greek Bible, both verbs are Infinitive:

  • Τίνα λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου;
  • Ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι;

To begin my question, let me say what I learned about Infinitive in English.  According to the English grammar book which I learned English from, Infinitive (or TO-Infinitive) carries the hint of notion of future not 100% but quite often.  For example, at the beginning point of a meeting we say “Nice to meet you” because the main body of meeting is in future while we say “Nice meeting you” at the end of the meeting because the main body of meeting is already in the past or present, not in future.

There is a 2006 film “the Queen” which famous actress Helen Mirren plays the Queen of England.  At the beginning scene, Tony Blair won the election and visited the palace to see the Queen.  The secretary tells the Queen that the Prime Minister came, and the Queen corrected the secretary angrily that he is the Prime Minister To Be.  In this example as well, the infinitive tells that is it future, not the present.

I became curious what the infinitive signifies in this passage.  To me, it very much sounds something like “Oh, this smart boy is got TO BE a doctor in the future.”  Then, is Jesus asking his disciples what or who he should be (in the future)?

I just learned Biblical Greek just for one year and was Teaching Assistant for another year, which means my Greek knowledge is very shallow.  And I could not figure it out by myself.  What I usually do in these situations is to (visit and) ask my professor even though I am out of school.  And I did.  I met her couple hours before her class and she was very busy preparing for the class.  I felt sorry but I was curious.  (Her only original sin is that she taught me and she is a good teacher.)

According to my Greek professor, the infinitive in Greek does not necessarily carry the notion of future as in English.  The second question of Jesus is literally translates “But who do you guys say me to be?”  And it can be translated into English for all  three tenses:

  • Who do you guys say I was?
  • Who do you guys say I am?
  • Who do you guys say I will be?

Then how can I decide the tense in English translation?  Her answer was ‘context.’  And I sighed to myself because I heard the importance of context hundreds of times, if not millions.  In language, there is not really absolute answer that almost nothing is 100%.  But if there is one, context is the only one.

As we all know, Peter answers to Jesus in v.16:

  • You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.
  • Σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος.

Peter’s answer in Greek uses which εἶ is Verb-Indicative-Present-2nd Person-Singular.  Because Peter clearly uses present tense, the other two questions in the same context should be present tense of BE.

This infinitive aspect of Greek is somewhat similar to Biblical Hebrew infinitive.  (Again not always but frequently) infinitive construct in Hebrew often times used with ב and כ to make temporal clause and it does not specify the tense.  We need to judge it through the context (YES CONTEXT) or we may have preceding marker such as וַיְהִי or וְהָיָה telling the tense of the clause.

Well, curiosity solved and it did not kill the cat yet. 🙂

Tuesday, 16 February 2016

How to say ‘I love you’ in Hebrew

Filed under: Lang:English,Lang:한국어,Subj:Languages — Jemyoung Leigh @ 21:27
Tags: , , ,

In Hebrew there are four possible sentences according to the gender:

히브리어에서는 성에 따라 사랑한다는 말은 네 가지로 구분된다:

When a man says to a woman / 남자가 여자에게 말할 때:

אֲנִי אוׂהֵב אוׂתָךְ (Ani Oheyv Otak)

When a woman says to a man / 여자가 남자에게 말할 때:

אֲנִי אוׂהֶבֶת אוׂתְךָ (Ani Ohebet Otka)

When a man says to another man / 남자가 다른 남자에게 말할 때:

אֲנִי אוׂהֵב אוׂתְךָ (Ani Oheyv Otka)

When a woman says to another woman / 여자가 다른 여자에게 말할 때:

אֲנִי אוׂהֶבֶת אוׂתָךְ (Ani Ohebet Otak)

 

Friday, 13 November 2015

Exodus 3:14 LXX translation and Question

Filed under: Lang:English,Subj:Arguement,Subj:Christianity — Jemyoung Leigh @ 18:54
Tags: , , , , , ,

Exodus 3:14 is very famous verse:

WTT: אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה

Which can be translated as I am who I am or I will be who I will be.

LXX: ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν

Because ὤν is participle (Present, Active, Nominative, Singular, Masculine) of εἰμι, This can be translated basically I am the being or I am the one who is.

Hebrew word היה is English word to be, and Greek word εἰμι.  And the divine name, tetragrammaton—יהוה— is from that Hebrew verb.

1. Why did not LXX write something like “ἐγώ εἰμι ὁς ἐγώ εἰμι” ?

Because Hebrew sentence is so beautiful being perfect symmetry and the Greek not.

2. Why did not LXX use another word οὐσία? This is also present active participle of εἰμι. This word has kind of deeper meaning and loved by many philosophers which is often translated into English as substance or essence. So, the sentence would be like: “ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ οὐσία

Greek professor simply said that the ancient people were sexists and did not want to use feminine noun for God. But 1 John 4:8 used feminine noun for God “ὁ θεὸς ἀγάπη ἐστίν” which is “God is love.”

Thursday, 18 December 2014

Is Haman the first trans-gender in history?

Haman is the villain in the Esther story of the Bible.  There are many things to talk about him, but let me focus on one thing.  Is Haman the first trans-gender in history?

I learned biblical Hebrew in the first year of the seminary.  I am not fluent, but I can slowly read the Hebrew Bible.  One day I read Esther 3:11 in the Hebrew Bible (paper book).  The English translation is “And the king said unto Haman, The silver is given to thee, the people also, to do with them as it seemeth good to thee (KJV).”  And the Hebrew Bible says,

וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְהָמָ֔ן הַכֶּ֖סֶף נָת֣וּן לָ֑ךְ וְהָעָ֕ם לַעֲשֹׂ֥ות בֹּ֖ו כַּטֹּ֥וב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃

The fifth word from the right (Hebrew is written and read from the right to left) is “to you” (or thee in KJV) but the form is 2nd person, feminine, singular.  The king is talking to Haman and he referred Haman as female.  I was confused and did not know what is going on there.

Then I kept reading.  The last word (which is the first word from the left) is literally “in your eyes.”  KJV does not say ‘eye’ but it would be “in thy eyes” in KJV style.  In this word, it is 2nd person, masculine, singular.

I was quite confused seriously.  So I looked up the BibleWorks, the Bible software, in the school library.  The software also confirmed that I am right.  Feminine first time, and masculine for the second time.

I talked to Brooks, who learned Hebrew last year together, and who is Hebrew EA (professor’s assistant) with me.  He and I discussed a lot and concluded that the Haman is trans-gender, probably the first one in written history.  The king refers Haman from female to male, and maybe Haman was originally a woman and became a guy.

And we went to Paula, the Hebrew professor, and as soon as she saw  the sentence, she confirmed that it is pausal form.  In “to you” section, there is pause mark, and it changed the vowel from “leka” to “laku” which made the masculine look identical to feminine.

So Haman is not a trans-gender.

Tuesday, 21 January 2014

Israel Trip Twelfth Day: Sea of Galilee, Capernaum, and Chorazain

Today was certainly New Testament Day, and especially Gospel Day.

Nazareth View from Saint Gabriel Hotel

Nazareth View from Saint Gabriel Hotel

This is the Nazareth view from the hotel. It is quite foggy and could not see far down there.

Cana

Cana

While we were driving down, our local guide identified us Cana where Jesus performed his very first miracle. He said wine is very precious gift because it means one years labour and huge portion of wealth. And if you do not provide enough wine in such events like wedding, it is permanent disgrace to the family. And how much it would be gossiped in that small town. Jesus literally saved the family. And George said that Jesus was not sitting with his mother in the feast because that is the Jewish tradition and culture that time. Even now they are separated in the synagogues.

Church of Beatitudes

Church of Beatitudes

First destination was the Church of Beatitude where Jesus preached the famous sermon on the mountain. On Matthew text, Jesus was on the mountain top, and it begins with Jesus sitting down. In Jewish tradition, rabbi stands normally, but when he sits, that means he is serious about his on-coming speech. So when Jesus sat down, everyone must have been quiet. And a beautiful church was built upon the rock which is believed that Jesus preached on.

Here is Matthew 5.3: “Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”

Between the two Hieberts

Between the two Hieberts

They are my favourite professors at McCormick and they are husband and wife. Such a beautiful couple.

With George, our local guide

With George, our local guide

Then we went to Galilee and had worship on the “Jesus” boat. The service was good. We read Psalm 150 in different languages of English, Korean, Spanish, Hebrew and Arabic. Arabic was read by our local guide George. He is the best guide I’ve ever met.

2000 Years old boat

2000 Years old boat

This boat was found under the mud in the Sea of Galilee and scientist concluded this boat is about 2,000 years old. At Jesus days, there must have been so many boats on Galilee, and this is one of them. There is also possibility that Jesus was on this boat at least once. And the boat is made out of twelve different trees.

Migdal

Migdal

This is archaeological site of ancient Migdal. And there is huge construction is going on to build a Magdalene Centre and resort. Our famous Mary Magdalene means Mary from the town of Migdal. Galilee area is the core place of Jesus ministry. We had lunch here.

Herod's Massacre

Herod’s Massacre

I forgot the name of this mountain. Our local guide said that there was rebel against Herod among Jewish people around here, and they fled to that mountain. And Herod commanded his solders to push and throw all the rebels off the cliff. And the people in Galilee saw that.

Church of Peter's Primacy

Church of Peter’s Primacy

And we went to Peter’s Primacy Church. Peter and his fellow disciples came here and were fishing after the death of Jesus. And Jesus came here and prepared the fire and meal. Then John found the Lord and told Peter. After that Jesus asked Peter if he loves him three times. This is the Church built to commemorate it.

This is John 21.15: “So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs.”

One of seven springs

One of seven springs

This area is known as Heptapegon which means seven springs in Greek. We did not have time to go for it, but I ran and found one of the seven springs.

Olive grinder

Olive grinder

Then we went to ancient Chorazin, one of the three towns Jesus cursed. This is small town, and the people here must have been more conservative, and relatively closed-minded stuck in tradition and religion. That is why Jesus came here and worked so hard to change them. This is ancient olive oil press.

Peter or Peter's mother-in-law's house

Peter or Peter’s mother-in-law’s house

This is Peter’s house in the town of Capernaum. Many of the holy places are just to commemorate and/or the actual locations are in dispute. But this one is 100% legitimate, without any dispute. That means Jesus actually ate, slept, rested, preached, healed and talked there. It is most probable that Jesus walked through the whole town. And there is Jewish synagogue during Jesus time. Jesus went, read scripture and taught there.

Stairway to the roof

Stairway to the roof

This is the house next to Peter’s and you can see the stairway to the roof. In Gospel, good friends carried their paralysed friend to the roof and lowered him down. This is how. And the roof is usually covered with just leaves and straws woods. So it is easy to open.

Sunset in Capernaum

Sunset in Capernaum

This is beautiful sunset. And my crude camera cannot contain the beauty of it.

Monday, 20 January 2014

Israel Trip Tenth Day: Church of Nativity, Refugee Camp

Today was another lecture day.

Stars and Bucks

Stars and Bucks

We walked to the Nativity Church from the bus terminal, and I thought I found on the way ‘Starbucks.’ But it was not.

Christmas Tree

Christmas Tree

In front of, or between the Bethlehem Peace Centre and the Nativity Church, there was a huge Christmas tree. I wonder if it lights up at night. I saw so many tourists here from all over the world; I could recognise some of their languages such as Chinese, Korean, English, French, Spanish. And there were more languages that I could not recognise. I just thought how much Jesus has been contributing to local economy just by being born here.

Church of Nativity

Church of Nativity

This is the Church of Nativity, basically built by Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great (Personally, I don’t like ‘the Great’ part). Helena built this Church, and later Persians came and destroyed all the Churches over 95% of them. When they came to this Church, they saw a paining – three magi offering to Baby Jesus. And the magi were dressed as typical Persians. And the army thought, ‘Wait a minute… this building must have something to do with our ancestors.’ And they left it. This story reminds me how cultural diversity is important.

SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA

If you see the three pictures, you can see the original huge gate at first picture. And then little bit smaller but still cargos can go in and out. Last one is current door and is low so that everyone bows down whenever they go in and to be humble.

Church of Nativity Catholic Sanctuary

Church of Nativity Catholic Sanctuary

The original place built by Helena and repaired by Crusaders is owned by Greek Orthodox. And next to it, Catholic Church is attached.

Jerome translated here the Bible into Latin Vulgate with the help of Paula and her daughter

Jerome translated here the Bible into Latin Vulgate with the help of Paula and her daughter

Catholic Church is of course commemorate the birth place of Jesus. But they also has another purpose – Jerome. If you go down to the basement, you can see the rooms where Jerome stayed and worked. In the picture, Left two persons are Paula and her daughter, the helper of Jerome. Jerome is the only Church Father who studied Hebrew in order to translate the Bible into Latin. And to help him, Paula and her daughter also learned Hebrew and Greek, and eventually they became or fluent in both language than Jerome.

Key to Home

Key to Home

This is one of the refugee camp. The key on top of it means the key to going back home.

Graffiti on Separation Wall

Graffiti on Separation Wall

On the wall, there are lots of graffiti. And the streets are so dirty with overflowing garbage.

SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA

On the wall, along with other graffiti, I found John 3:16 in Korean. It struck my head. Yes, God loves them so much. God loves these persecuted people so much so that He sent his only Son so that they can live.

Lajee Centre

Lajee Centre

There is Lajee Centre. I don’t know what exactly is this, but they have a library for children (where we were sitting), and computer lab, and a few more.

American History

American History

Surprisingly, they have whole volume of American history.

Blocking Entanglement

Blocking Entanglement

They are surrounded by separation wall. Out of the wall used to be their farming field, and work place. But they most of them lost their job. To Jerusalem it used to take 10-15 minutes and now it takes more than 2 hours thanks to the Israeli checkpoint.

Bethlehem University

Bethlehem University

We went to Bethlehem university. It has beautiful buildings.

Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh

Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh

Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh spoke about his perspective of Palestine’s future and history. Interestingly, he is biologist and biology professor. He said if American government moves in the right way, the illegal occupation of Israel would end within two weeks. Well, that might be true since US government give about 2 million dollars to Israel every single day. But the thing is American politicians cannot live without the money from the Jewish lobbyists. And if Obama calls Israel to stop it, he may not be a president the next day.

Lawyer Raffoul Rofa

Lawyer Raffoul Rofa

After lunch where we had before on the day of Shepherds’ field, we came back to school for another session. Mr. Raffoul Rofa is a lawyer, working at St. Yves, a Catholic centre for human rights where 20 staffs working including 8 lawyers. They’ve been working for people with family reunion issues and house demolitions, and the likes. For house demolitions, they’ve got only one permit so far for fifteen years with thousands cases. And even the one was a school building built by US Aid. US Aid pressured the US federal government, and US government told Israel government. This is why they’ve got permit not because they fought in the court.

Rimon Kando Shop

Rimon Kando Shop

And then we had some time in the souvenir shop. I also bought something.

Saturday, 11 January 2014

Israel Trip Fourth Day: Ein Gedi, Qumran, Dead Sea, and Jericho

Today was the very first day that we went to the east side of the hill country, and we saw the wilderness.

Wilderness of Judah

Wilderness of Judah

East of the hill country is dry with just 4 inches of rain whole year. It is because of Foehn wind. When we came close to the dead sea, the wilderness ended and flatbed was spread out in front of us.

Flatbed near the Dead Sea

Flatbed near the Dead Sea

Finally we met the famous dead sea.

Dead Sea

Dead Sea

We ran along the Dead Sea shore, and there are so many dates plantations.

Dates Plantation along the Dead Sea

Dates Plantation along the Dead Sea

The Bible says about the honey a lot, and the thing is there are no bees and consequently there are no honey. And the guide said Bible mentioned possibly about the dates honey. In this area, people make honey out of fruits, and among them, dates honey is the most common thing.

Date Tree

Date Tree

I thought it is palm tree such as Coconut, but the local guide said it is date tree. And when I went to Jericho today, I tasted a date, and it was so sweet. I think that was the sweetest date I’ve ever eaten. I have no idea why, but all the fruits here in Israel has far much better taste.

Thorn Tree

Thorn Tree

We arrived at Ein Gedi, and the very first thing welcomed us was this tree. It is Jujube tree, kind of thorn tree. Many people believe the thorn crown of Jesus was made out of this species of tree (not this tree). The t horns are not only sharp but also very long.

Lower Fall

Lower Fall

On the Ein Gedi hiking route, I saw three falls, and this is the first one just after the entrance, named lower fall. See how the Ein Gedi is dried and deserted.

Dead Tree next to the fall

Dead Tree next to the fall

The tree is just next to the fall and is dead. When King Saul pursued after David to kill, David fled and hid himself in this Ein Gedi and most probably he saw the same or similar thing that I saw today. He probably projected himself to those trees. His psalm sings, “like a tree planted by the water.” I now think it is not just beautiful poetic expression, but the reality and to him it was the matter of life and death. He had to choose to be one of the two trees, and the situation was hopeless. He must have thought that the only chance to be the green tree is to stick to God.

Watching the Dead Sea from Ein Gedi

Watching the Dead Sea from Ein Gedi

If you see the picture above, it is green only along the water. Everywhere else is dry and dead.

SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA

Fall of David

This was our destination – the Fall of David. After here, we headed back.

With Paula Hiebert

With Paula Hiebert

Paula is my Biblical Hebrew professor at McCormick Theological Seminary and wife of Ted Hiebert. She also is a wonderful OT scholar, studied at Harvard University for her doctoral degree.

Caves of Ein Gedi

Caves of Ein Gedi

There are many caves in Ein Gedi, and maybe David hid himself in one of those caves. After Ein Gedi, we headed to Qumran where the famous Dead Sea Scroll was found.

Replica Jars of Qumran

Replica Jars of Qumran

These are the replica of the jars which contained the scrolls about two thousand years.

SANYO DIGITAL CAMERA

Community Rule Scroll

Qumran was actually a community of even 1,000 religious men. Whoever can join but there was three years probation. The life there was very strict, and the scroll above was the Community Rule scroll.

Scriber's Desk

Scriber’s Desk

The member’s daily life is full of religious works, including copying the scripture. This is the scriber’s desk.

Ritual Bath Site

Ritual Bath Site

One of the religious thing was ritual bath. Ritual bath itself was not unique to this community but Essenes emphasised very much, and they had several ritual bath sites when they didn’t have enough water even to drink. Above photo is the actual archaeological site of their ritual bath.

Qumran Cave No. 4

Qumran Cave No. 4

This is Qumran cave No. 4 and is most important cave. It may not be impossible, but highly unlikely that there would be another scrolls to be found, because they searched the entire vicinity thoroughly. At Qumran site, there was a huge group of Korean tourists, and I heard the leader said, “I said SIT DOWN.” Some local people said that they see more Koreans than Jews in Israel, and I also saw a Korean signs in Jericho. We had lunch at Qumran.

Dead Sea Kalia Beach

Dead Sea Kalia Beach

After lunch, we went to Kalia Beach of the Dead Sea. Paula and Ted used to live in Israel for a year and she today told me that she can easily recognise that the water level of the dead sea lowered a lot. Our guide said that the dead sea is dying. It is so sad that everywhere I go, they say the nature is dying. When I went to see the glacier on Rocky Mountains in Canada, the guide said that the glacier is dying. I am afraid in one or two generation, if the guide would just say to the people that ‘it used to be dead sea,’ or ‘it used to be glacier here.’

Sticky Mud!

Sticky Mud!

The mud was so sticky and it tried to take my shoes off all the time. I tasted the water expecting the saltness but I tasted extremely bitterness. And several seconds after, I began to taste the saltness. And I thought about the Elisha’s miracle in Jericho. People appealed to him that the spring water was too bitter. I guess that was because the spring was connected to the dead sea. And Elisha put salt into it. The water is bitter because of too much salt, and he added even more salt. It is crazy and non-sense. His treatment doesn’t really make any sense. But it worked. Likewise, I think, God’s way and Christian’s way is crazy and non-sense to other people’s eyes. But if God helps us, we can do miracles.

Floating!

Floating!

I actually wanted to take a photo holding a news paper or something, but I could not find any. There was a lady who refused to go in because she cannot swim. So I told her the body floats automatically. It feels like someone pushed me up from inside the water.

Dead sea is about 430 metres below sea level, and it is very warm. So we enjoyed semi-summer weather today. The Dead Sea contains high percentage of salt and diverse minerals, they sell the mud for lady’s skin. And I feel my skin got softer and better after the bathing.

Zacchaeus climbed this tree

Zacchaeus climbed this tree

We went to Jericho, our final destination for today. It is believed that Jesus called Zacchaeus down from this tree. I hope everyone can meet Jesus and be called by Him.

Peacock in Jericho

Peacock in Jericho

We went to a very important archaeological site, and there were so many peacocks. They reminded me my honeymoon at Hawaii.

Camel in Jericho

Camel in Jericho

And I saw a camel. Unlike the public image of Israel, I haven’t seen any camel until today. I don’t think even that camel is not for transportation but for fun ride.

Mount Quarantania

Mount Quarantania

The mountain on the back is the Mount Quarantania which means forty, and is also called Temptation Mountain. It is believed that Jesus fasted for forty days and nights and tempted at this mountain.

5000 BC

5000 BC

This is 5,000 BC, so it is about 7,000 years old.

Layers of time

Layers of time

This is the layers of time. Black layers mean the fire destruction.

10,000 BC Tower

10,000 BC Tower

This is the tower built around 10,000 BC and consequently it is 12,000 years old. And this is one of the earliest building of the human history. Actually Jericho is THE OLDEST CITY in the world.

Fortress of 1,900 BC

Fortress of 1,900 BC

This is the fortress and walls behind for fortification built around 1,900 BC. The buildings in ancient Jericho was built with mud bricks and you can see them in the photo. So far the archaeologists failed to find the Jericho wall that Joshua destroyed. Some scholars say that Israel did not really come and destroyed, but the city automatically emptied by themselves even before Israelites came. Some scholars believe that we just did not find the right one yet.

Thursday, 5 December 2013

Deuteronomy in original tongue

וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ מֹשֶׁ֑ה וַיְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

It took me almost five minutes to translate this simple sentence. This is from Deuteronomy, and its Hebrew name is דברים which means literally “Words.”

The above sentence reads:

and-(will)-go Moses and-(will)-speak (object)-the-words the-these to-all-Israel.

But in Biblical Hebrew, the word ‘and’ reverse the tense. So if it is written “and will go,” it means “went.” Likewise, “and went” means “will go.” The above sentence can be rendered as:

Moses went and spoke these words to all Israel.

첫줄의 히브리어 문장을 해석하는데 거의 5분 가까이 걸렸다. 신명기에 나오는 말씀인데, 신명기를 히브리어로는 דברים라고 한다. 이는 직역하면 “말씀들”이라는 뜻이다.

위 문장은 다음과 같다:

그리고-(미래시제)-가다 모세 그리고-(미래시제)-말하다 을/를-그-말씀들 그-이러한 에게-모든-이스라엘.

그런데 성경 히브리어에서는 ‘그리고’라는 단어가 시제를 뒤바꿔 버리기 때문에 ‘그리고 갈 것이다’라고 써 있으면 ‘갔었다’는 의미가 되고 반대로 ‘그리고 갔었다’고 써 있으면 ‘갈 것이다’로 해석이 된다. 그러면 위 문장은 아래와 같이 해석이 된다.

모세가 가서 이러한 말들을 모든 이스라엘에게 했다.

Blog at WordPress.com.